Physical - Melee or ranged weapons, fists
Crush/Choke/Jump/Slash damage - variant of melee damage
Pierce/Shot/Projectile damage = Ranged Physical (arrow/spear/bolt)
Fire - Fire/Burning spells
Water - Water spells
Cold - Freezing/frost/ice damage
Air - wind/air manipulation spells
Ether/Spirit/Astral/Psionic/Psychic - Spells which cannot be blocked(ethereal reach) or resisted(usually)
Blood damage - spells which affect hp directly like poison dmg
Shadow - dark/evil spells, dark beams
Nature - plant/animal sources,could be variant of poison
Light - Also called Holy(bonus vs undead or evil), light beams/auras
Electric/Energy - Lightning,"energy" and electricity spells
Poison/corrosion - poisoned projectiles or poison clouds
Earth/Tectonic/Gravity - Earth moving/underground
Chaos/Magical - Corruption/Curse damage over time
Void/Arcane/Space/Time - Spells which damage spacetime/vortexes/portals/vacuum/reality alteration

Simplified and Universal Damage:
Simplified systems has Physical/Elemental/Other types or with additional Unblockable/Effect damage.
Universal Damage:
Damage types don't exist, all damage is of same quality.
Percentage Damage:
Same as Universal damage but instead removes N percent of life/mana.

Classical 5 element systems:
System Elm1 Elm2 Elm3 Elm4 Elm5
Chinese wood fire earth metal water
Indian Ether Fire Earth Air Water
Greek Ether Fire Earth Air Water
Buddhist Void Fire Earth Air Water
Japanese Sky Fire Earth Air Water
Bön Space Fire Earth Air Water